China Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine ›› 2022, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (6): 2228-2238.doi: 10.16431/j.cnki.1671-7236.2022.06.023

• Genetics and Breeding • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Estimation of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Five Tibet Yak Populations Using Microsatellites Markers

ZHANG Qiang1,2, LUOSANG Dunzhu1,2, BASANG Wangdui1,2, PENG Yangyang3, E Guangxin3, NIMA Ciren4, SUOLANG Duoji5, BA Duo5, DAN Ba4, XIAN Lili1,2, DANBA Jiacan5, ZHI Zhang5, PINGCUO Zhandui1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Barley and Yak Germplasm Researces and Genetics Improvement, Lhasa 850000, China;
    2. Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Tibet Academy of Agriculture and Animal Husandry Science, Lhasa 850009, China;
    3. College of Animal Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400417, China;
    4. Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Bureau of the Gaize County of Ali District, Ali 859000, China;
    5. Committee of Gaize County in Ali District, Ali 859200, China
  • Received:2021-10-08 Online:2022-06-05 Published:2022-05-27

Abstract: 【Objective】 The aim of this study was to investigate the conservative status and phylogenetic relationship of 5 Tibet yak populations (Ali, Sibu, Niangya, Leiwuqi and Pali yaks) by estimating the genetic diversity of main yak populations and combing the genetic structure among yak populations from different areas.【Method】 A total of 195 individuals from 5 yak populations were genotyped using 13 microsatellite markers (SSR), and a series of genetic parameters were evaluated, such as the number of alleles, gene heterozygosity, polymorphism information content and genetic distance between populations.【Result】 Ali yak population had the largest number of alleles (6.43), while the Leiwuqi yak had the least (5.00).The observed heterozygosity distribution ranges from 0.5311 (Niangya yak) to 0.5995 (Leiwuqi yak).The number of markers deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in each population ranges from 5 (Leiwuqi yak) to 9 (Ali yak), the highest inbreeding coefficient within population was 0.172 (Ali yak), and 4 populations (Ali, Niangya, Sibu and Pali yaks) with a significant risk of inbreeding (P<0.05).According to the pairwise difference of populations, there were significant genetic divergence (P<0.05) between each population pair.The results of STRUCTURE software analysis revealed that 5 yak populations were divided into 3 clusters.Among them, Ali yak had richer diversity within populations than that of others.In addition, the phylogenetic tree indicated that the independent phylogenetic relationship between populations as well as inconsistent with their habitat geographical distribution.The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) results revealed that there were some individuals from different population carry closely kinship, indicating that there was genetic material exchange between populations.【Conclusion】 5 Tibet yak populations had rich genetic diversity and relatively independent population phylogenetic relationship.However, most populations were under risk of population events.Therefore, this study would not only help to clarify the genetic diversity of Tibetan yak, but also provided a theoretical reference for improvement of future conservation strategies.

Key words: Tibet yak; microsatellite marker; genetic diversity; population structure

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