China Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine ›› 2020, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (8): 2481-2492.doi: 10.16431/j.cnki.1671-7236.2020.08.016

• Genetics and Breeding • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Analyses of Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of mtDNA D-loop from Yak in Karakoram-Pamir Area

LI Jing1,2,3, GUO Lijun1,2, WANG Li1,2, HU Ping1,2, XIAO Yi1,2, HAN Jianlin1,2, WANG Yutao1,2   

  1. 1. College of Life and Geographic Sciences, Kashi University, Kashi 844000, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Biological Resources and Ecology of Pamirs Plateau in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Kashi 844000, China;
    3. Kashi No. 2 Middle School, Xinjiang, Kashi 844000, China
  • Received:2020-02-26 Online:2020-08-20 Published:2020-08-15

Abstract: This experiment was conducted to clarify the genetic diversity,genetic differentiation and phylogenetic status of yak in Karakoram-Pamir area.The mtDNA D-loop region sequence was selected as a molecular marker,and the sequence and genetic diversity of the mtDNA D-loop region of yak in Karakoram-Pamir area were analyzed by PCR direct sequencing and bioinformatics methods.The yak sequence in GenBank was used.The maximum likelihood method was used to construct the phylogenetic tree and the intermediary network relationship.The results showed that the mtDNA D-loop sequence of yak in Karakoram-Pamir area was rich in A and T bases,with AT content of 61.2%,and there were 63 polymorphic loci,accounting for 7.04% of the total number of nucleotides.The results indicated that A and T bases were rich in the mtDNA D-loop sequences at 61.2%.There were 63 mutation sites,accounting for 7.04% of all nucleotides,The average haplotype diversity (Hd) was 0.806,the average nucleotide diversity (π) was 0.01528,and the average nucleotide difference (K) was 13.509,indicating that the yak was rich in genetic diversity in Karakoram-Pamir area;Through phylogenetic analysis,there were two branches in yak in China,forming two branches and six small clades.The yak in Karakoram-Pamir area involved in this study had two different maternal origins.Additionally,yak in the Karakoram-Pamir area was less shared with other breeds of yak haplotypes.In the branch C,the yak group in the Karakoram-Pamir area accounts for a large proportion and was shared with wild yak.The yak population in Karakoram-Pamir area had a unique genetic background,which might be the result of early domestication of wild yaks.It was suggested to increase the identification of yak breeds and the formulation of breed standards in this area,and strengthen the protection of yak genetic resources in this area.According to the current situation of the population,wild blood yaks were introduced for purification and rejuvenation to prevent breed degeneration and decrease of genetic diversity.The introduction of foreign yak breeds and disorderly hybridization were reduced to ensure the characteristics of this breed of high-quality yak breed resources.

Key words: Karakoram-Pamir area; yak; mtDNA D-loop; genetic diversity; phylogeny

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